Earth for Hire

April 2008

Earth for Hire

Water filtration, pollination, air purification… nature used to do it all for free. Now the emerging field of “ecosystem services” aims to put a price tag on our natural resources. Are capitalists the new conservationists?

By E.B. Boyd

If you started at scenic Bethany Beach on the Delaware shore and drove due west on Route 26 for 10 miles, you’d hit the town of Dagsboro. Pass through town, drive a few more miles west, and you’re in Cypress Swamp Forest Legacy Area. This clunkily-monikered chunk of land is one of the last remaining swaths of forest in the state. Last year, the land’s owner, a timber company, sought to sell the property. Normally, it would have been snapped up by a developer looking to pave it over with housing subdivisions. This, after all, is one of the fastest growing regions of the state, and housing developments bring in more money than timber. Instead, however, the land was purchased by a Maryland-based group of investors who plan to turn a tidy profit another way: by doing nothing.

Actually, “nothing” is an oversimplification. First, they are going to restore the land — which has been ditched, drained and leveled by its timber masters — and return it to its original swampy glory. Then they’re going to do what conservationists have been imploring society to do with wetlands like this: leave it be. And for their pains, these new-style businessmen expect to reap the same kind of financial returns as if they had invested their millions on Wall Street.

The group, called Ecosystem Investment Partners, is at the tip of a paradigm shift that is turning one of the bedrock notions of free market economics on its head. “The fundamental pattern has to do with supply and demand,” says Adam Davis, a business sustainability consultant and one of EIP’s principals. “There used to be very few of us people out here on Earth compared to the size of natural systems. But with 6.5 billion of us, and with our consumption and production of resources per person going up and up, there’s a new relationship of supply and demand. Ultimately, it’s that new relationship that creates the financial value of natural systems.”

Paved Paradise

Since Adam Smith wrote his famous tract, capitalism has maintained land has no value until it is put to use by humans — which is why wetlands, prairies and forests have been drained, paved over and cut down in favor of shopping malls, office parks and suburban homes. Much to the dismay of conservationists, calls to leave nature alone haven’t held much sway when there’s been a buck to be made. Now, however, thanks to an emerging field called “ecosystem services,” it’s beginning to look like there might actually be a buck to be made by letting pieces of land — or, more specifically, the ecosystems they contain — remain pristine.

Ecosystems, say proponents of the new thinking, perform real work that has bottom-line value to human economies — work like filtering drinking water, pollinating crops and (the service most people are probably familiar with today) controlling climate. In many cases, they say, nature can do the work more cheaply than any man-made solution. In light of this new understanding, communities and businesses are taking a second look at nature, figuring out how it plays into their bottom lines, and in some cases, rejiggering their business practices and investing in conservation as a result of their discoveries. The field is still nascent and its application scattered. But one of the strongest signals to date that this could be the wave of the future came in 2005 when Wall Street behemoth Goldman Sachs announced that, as part of a wide-ranging environmental strategy, it would fund research into how to valuate the services generated by forest systems. “It’s an indicator of where things are going,” says Davis.

The ideas have been around for a while, but they started gaining momentum a decade ago. In 1997, a group of ecologists, biologists and others became concerned that even those who did hold affection for the spotted owl or backwoods camping trips did not fully appreciate nature’s contribution to human economies. So they published a book called Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, which details the dozens of natural functions that can be tabulated on a balance sheet. In addition to water filtration, pollination and carbon sequestration, other services include flood protection, fish and timber production, runoff protection, recreation, waste management and air purification. Later that same year, a team led by University of Vermont ecological economist Robert Costanza quantified the actual value of all that work. The final tally? $33 trillion — more than the entire world GNP at the time.

That figure — and the fact that it could be calculated at all — caught the attention of business people and policy planners alike. Now, a ground-level shift is taking place. Instead of ignoring nature, or worse, paving it over or polluting it, some communities and businesses are realizing it’s sometimes in their interest to conserve nature — so they can turn around and “hire” it to perform certain much-needed services. New York City, for example, decided to invest in maintaining the Catskills Mountain watershed because using it to filter their drinking water was at least 80 percent cheaper than building a new water plant. Similarly, when authorities in Seattle’s King County were short of funds to repair levee systems, they turned to nature for help, creating a plan to restore floodplains and let nature do the work of taming floods. And Wal-Mart and Japanese car manufacturers that ship goods through the Panama Canal are funding a project to pay neighboring landowners to restore and maintain forests on their lands. The forests will serve the businesses by reducing soil erosion and the resulting silt buildup in the canal, which in turn will cut the insurance premiums the corporations pay to protect their barges against business delays caused when the canal closes for dredging.

In each of these arrangements, the customer benefits by getting a specific service out of nature. But conservationists are also benefiting by getting what they have been seeking all along: restored habitats and a reversal of environmental degradation. Along with the excitement about the new paradigm, however, is a new sense of urgency, driven by the realization that some services provided by nature might not actually be around much longer. For some, like flood protection, waste management or pollution, the alternative will be expensive man-made solutions. But for others, like carbon sequestration, there is no meaningful technological alternative. In 2005, the United Nations made an alarming pronouncement: 60 percent of the services provided by nature, it said, are being degraded faster than they can be replaced. “The ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted,” the U.N. said.

The culprits are human. On the one hand, today’s exploding populations require more services than when there were fewer of us on the planet. At the same time, there are fewer ecosystems altogether to provide the services. Human activity has destroyed ecosystems directly, through the conversion of land for other uses, and indirectly, through pollutants. Public policy leaders are now considering new rules — and in some cases instituting them — to reverse the destructive trends. From that new regulatory environment, new business opportunities are arising, principally in the form of credit schemes. Businesses or government authorities that can’t meet the new standards “outsource” their compliance by buying credits from others. The most well known and mature of these are carbon markets. But markets for other natural goods, like wetlands and particular kinds of habitats, have also emerged in various parts of the country. If Adam Davis’s vision comes true, these will become the primary mechanism for creating large-scale conservation. “The more we align meaningful return on investments to meaningful conservation results, the more conservation we’ll produce,” he says.

Davis talks like a capitalist, but he’s an environmentalist at heart. A stint at a Berkeley composting company directly after college forged his interest in sustainability. But it was while implementing recycling and composting programs at Northern California’s largest waste management company that he concluded that massive behavioral change, like the kind needed to reverse environmental degradation, isn’t possible until economic incentives are put in place to push it forward. “If we want to really get to where we need to go,” he says, “we need to make it just as rewarding financially to invest.”

How Much For That Mountain? 


Though seemingly promising, credit schemes, also known as environmental markets, are still in their infancy. “It’s still very much the vanguard companies that are willing to take a small risk,” says Emma Stewart, director of Environmental Research & Development at Business for Social Responsibility, a nonprofit business association that advises members on socially responsible business solutions. Before environmental marketplaces become more commonplace, basic market mechanisms — the foundations of any efficient economy — will have to be created: Easy ways for credit buyers and sellers to find each other; enforcement mechanisms to ensure conservation is being delivered; common ways of measuring units of damage and units of conservation; and efficient pricing systems.

Gretchen Daily, a Stanford ecologist and the editor of the landmark Nature’s Services book, is working on that last piece. In 2006, Stanford’s Woods Institute, where Daily is a senior fellow, joined forces with the Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund to create the Natural Capital Project, which is developing tools for measuring the services specific ecosystems provide, determining what they’re worth, and identifying who’s benefiting from them.

If Davis does not seem like the typical environmentalist, Daily does not initially seem like your typical capitalist. She’s a soft-spoken professor of biology who caught the environmentalism bug during her teenage years while watching massive demonstrations against acid rain in Germany, where her father was stationed with the military. All things considered, Daily would rather be tramping around some bug-infested tropical forest than navigating the canyons of Wall Street. But as a young scientist doing research in Costa Rica, Daily realized large-scale solutions to environmental destruction must be embedded in a system of economic incentives. “In many parts of the world, there’s no way to feed one’s family and conserve nature. People just don’t have that choice,” she says. “If we’re not making money, it’s not going to happen.”

Some environmentalists balk at the new approach, arguing that moral suasion should be enough. They also object to the commoditization of nature and are repelled by the idea that the same sector of society that has historically destroyed the environment, the business sector, will now be the primary beneficiary of efforts to restore it. Proponents, however, say they are just being practical. “From a pragmatic point-of-view, all the indicators are going to continue to go down in terms of planetary health unless you price things into our economic system,” says BSR’s Stewart. “It is scary,” says Gretchen Daily. “It’s economic forces that have taken us to the brink. But we need a force that powerful to bring us away from that brink.”

E.B. Boyd is looking forward to the day when she gets paid for the climate control services performed by the giant Monterey Cypruses in her backyard.

Splashy Sullivan resort planned

Details include indoor water park and spa
A Pennsylvania-based resort company wants to build a $100 million-dollar resort off of Route 17 in the Town of Thompson hamlet of Bridgeville. The Sandstone Resort would feature 350 rooms and suites.Rendering provided by American Resort Management

Adam Bosch LINK IS HERE:

BRIDGEVILLE — A national resort company yesterday announced its plans for a $100 million resort, spa and indoor water park in Sullivan County.

The Sandstone Resort at Hudson Valley would be located just off Route 17 in Bridgeville and would feature 350 rooms and suites, a 60,000-square-foot indoor water park and a high-end spa. The project’s developer, American Resort Management, said it would create 250 jobs.

Richard Coleman, senior vice president of the company, said the location is ideal because millions of potential customers live within a three-hour traveling radius, especially in New York City.

“We want to have a throwback to the glory days of hospitality in that region,” Coleman said, evoking the Catskills’ heyday as New York’s top resort destination. The project already has attracted investors, but Coleman said those details will be announced in the future.

Sullivan County has a healthy skepticism about projects this large, given the recent history of multimillion-dollar plans that never come to fruition.

“It would be a great thing for the area,” said Town of Thompson Supervisor Tony Cellini. “But I’ll believe it when I see it.”

American Resort Management is working with Bridgeville USA LLC, a partnership that owns the 18 acres off Exit 107. Bridgeville USA’s investors include Charles Petri and Gene Barbanti, who failed in a business venture with the Unkechaug Indian Tribe a few years ago. Working with the Tribe, Petri and Barbanti wanted to install a casino and high-stakes bingo parlor at the run-down Apollo Mall in Monticello, court papers said.

The gambling plan ultimately failed, in large part because the Unkechaug are not a federally recognized tribe. Financial disputes eventually pitted the tribe against Petri and Barbanti, both of whom were absolved of any wrongdoing in court.

Now the two men are back, with partners that have considerable experience. American Resort Management owns or manages 13 resorts, water parks and restaurants across the country. The company said it will contract with Hy-R Building Systems in Liberty, where Barbanti is a managing partner. He and Petri could not be reached yesterday.

Assuming the project is approved by the town, American Resort Management said it would break ground this fall and open in summer 2009.

$100 million indoor water park resort and spa announced


Architect’s rendering

BRIDGEVILLE – A 350-room indoor destination resort with a 60,000 square foot water park and family entertainment sphere was announced Monday by Bridgeville USA LLC. The company plans to build the facility, which anticipates employing 250 full- and part-time people, on 18 acres off Rt. 17 exit 107 in Bridgeville.

The project has been dubbed Sandstone Resort at Hudson Valley, but as it develops, owners may adopt the Catskills Region imagine for marketing purposes.

“Indoor water parks are becoming very common in many areas of the country. Their popularity is largely based on the family-friendly getaways that can be had relatively close to home every day of the year in a beautiful 84-degree setting,” Richard Coleman of American Resort Management, the company chosen to operate the facility.

People will drive up to three hours to a water resort, he said. “There are some staggering numbers of people who we would like to have as our future customers.”

The resort will also include a spa, a high definition 4-D theater, expanded resort amenities, shopping and several “interactive dining options.”

The company hopes to break ground this fall and open in the summer of 2009. Coleman said they are about to start seeking the local planning approvals for the project.

New York’s 2008 Congressional Earmarks

Citizens Against Government Waste published its annual list of congressional earmarks (they actually call it the Congressional Pig Book list).

Of course, what one person calls wasteful spending, another person calls bringing home the bacon, and now that Democrats are in the majority, New York was supposed to be getting more federal money.

The state made out with a good portion, particularly in the Catskills, where Maurice Hinchey brought in $43.7 million.

Here is a list of what some members from New York, and a few from elsewhere, brought their districts, according to the list. (It’s in numbers of millions):

New York City:
Gary Ackerman- $20.9
Joe Crowley-$29.8
Carolyn Maloney-$23.1
Greg Meeks-$6.2
Jerry Nadler-$14
Anthony Weiner-$8.6
Jose Serrano-$13.8
Charles Rangel-$11
Nydia Valezquez-$3.7
Vito Fossella-$0
Yvette Clarke-$4.3

Freshman Democrats from New York:

Kirsten Gillibrand-23.8
Michael Arcuri-$28.9
John Hall-$20.4

Others worth noting:

Tim Bishop of Long Island-$32
Steve Israel of Long Island-$16.2
Peter King of Long Island-$21.3
Nita Lowey of Westchester-$27.9
Carolyn McCarthy of Long Island-$23.1
Maurice Hinchey of the Catskills-$43.7
Randy Kuhl of the Rochester area-$23.5
Mike McNulty of the Albany area-$17.2
Brian Higgins of Buffalo-$23.7
Denis Kucinich of Ohio-$8.1
Rahm Emmanuel of Illinois-$22.3
Steny Hoyer, Majority Leader-$149.1
Nancy Pelosi, House Speaker-$91.2

Belleayre: All About the Vibe

Meet Your Watershed: Where the Catskill Mountains Rule and the Beauty is Free

Roxbury, NY (PRWEB) April 8, 2008 — Just a little over two hours from New York City is a region so unspoiled, so unpolluted that it still supplies fresh water to nine million city dwellers. The Catskills may be home to only a few hardy “locals” this time of year, but it’s an affordable breath of fresh air for the cold-snapped city nerves of Manhattanites. Come upstate to The Roxbury, Contemporary Catskill Lodging ( for a great getaway package and you can “thank that spring” — not just the season, but the liquid essence itself, which is melting on the mountain ridges, rippling down NY State’s Delaware County ( streams and flowing downstate for its star turn as the “Champagne of Tap Waters.”

Up in Delaware County right now, days are getting longer, the fish are jumping and trout season is officially here. The wilderness hike is at its best now — brisk, sunny and solitary, with that incredible “slanted” spring light that has inspired generations of painters and writers like Roxbury’s very own native John Burroughs. With thousands of wooded, hushed acres to wander, you can actually hear yourself think as you take in the earliest songbirds and trace the shadows of the hawks’ wings.

OK, the hiking may be wonderful in the Catskills but leaving all of civilization behind is not always a good thing. At the chic-fab Roxbury Motel (, all the best of now has landed right in a romantic, historic mountain hamlet. Recently featured on NBC’s Today show as one of the “hottest trends in travel” (view video here) (, The Roxbury offers award-winning “wow factor” theme rooms and suites (, heavenly pillowtop mattresses, DVD players, microwaves and fridges, 100% Egyptian cotton linens, luxurious “Lather” bathroom amenities, and free wifi in every room. Wake up to freshly-ground Hawaiian coffee served with freshly-baked aromatic coffee cake, fresh fruit, muffins, croissants, pumpkin seed cereal, and so much more in the extensive complimentary breakfast. And The Roxbury’s Shimmer Spa ( will soak and soothe all those winter aches away. And, just in time for the awakening of Spring, The Roxbury is now offering a limited-time, once-in-a-year savings: a loaded hiking package for twosomes that starts at $385 for a whole weekend (that’s $100 off regular season rates) and for $685, you can spread out in an opulently appointed fantasy suite — complete with Genie’s bottle soaking tub — for you and your four hippest friends (that’s $200 off regular season rates). But “think spring” because these deals only last through May 22, 2008.

The Roxbury’s “Thank that Spring” ( package supplies all the gear needed to enjoy the great outdoors with panache and no panting (enjoy a complimentary “high sierra” hiker’s backpack, stuffed with a flask of fine Bordeaux, a two-person lunch or an assortment of cool cheeses) along with maps and a planned itinerary for a great hike based on skill level and “enthusiasm” for exertion.

Take a pick from such spectacular treks as Giant Ledge Hike and its breathtaking panoramic views of the rolling peaks of the Catskill Mountains, Kelly Hollow Hike and its awakening flora and fauna, Alder Lake Hike with its sparkling water and idyllic lakeside picnic spots, or up the stone steps to Roxbury’s railbed hike tracing the historic footsteps of the Native American Lenape, or Kaaterskill Falls Hike and the roar of its series of dramatic waterfalls. Even in the hamlet itself, the East Branch of the Delaware River winds through the elegant expanse of Kirkside Park, through the village and then through the back yard right outside the rooms at The Roxbury (there goes that water supply!).

Once back from a day of adventures, enjoy an indulgent yet educational two-hour couples’ massage as well as 2 complimentary passes to use The Shimmer Spa throughout an entire stay. Cozy up at night with any of The Roxbury’s 400 DVD film collection (including the AFI’s 100 best movies ever made).

For the outdoorsy types wanting to add even more verve to their package, you can wake up the next day and check out some of the most challenging mountain biking in the Northeast at Plattekill Mountain, just five minutes away. Or rent some bikes and cycle the day away on the meandering 27-mile Catskill Scenic Trail which starts right outside the village of Roxbury.

Add more fun and glam to your package with a 3-course tasting menu for two at the award-winning Peekamoose Restaurant (only $90) or turn the whole weekend into a “Groovy Girls Night Getaway” or “Rad Romance” package (see for details). Or you can go for a more “back to nature” bare bones package without the extras like the massage and save even more!

Discussion to look at Catskill farming

The Daily Star

September 19, 2007

The Catskill Center for Conservation and Development in Arkville will host a discussion of Catskills farming culture from 1 to 3 p.m. with guest speakers Sally Fairbairn and Wes Gillingham.

The two sessions will compliment the current Erpf Gallery exhibit, “Farming Culture,” featuring paintings by Stu Eichel and Laura Hussey.

In her discussion “The Making of a Natural Farmer,” Fairbairn will center on her own development as a farmer and environmentalist, including some discussion of why her farm is not organic. She will talk about the farm she is operating now and how it differs from what she used to do. The presentation will be punctuated with a few of Fairbairn’s original poems, and she will talk about her recent piece in The Place You Call Home, the Northern Woodland magazine. Copies of this publication will be available free of charge.

Fairbairn was born and raised in the Margaretville area. Her parents, Morton and Emmeline Scudder, owned Riverby Farm on Route 30. She attended New York University and majored in English, intending to be a high school English teacher, but left after one year. She returned to her farming roots, marrying local veterinarian Dr. John Fairbairn and running their Halcott Center dairy farm with him for many years. After they retired from dairy farming, she raised sheep for a few years, moving to the Fairbairn family’s land in Rider Hollow outside of Arkville during the late 1980s. Her farming life came full circle when her older son decided to become a dairy farmer.

Fairbairn said she has tried to combine farming and writing without much success, and is a past president of the M-ARK Project and Writers in the Mountains. She is a member of the Watershed Agricultural Council and a trustee of the Catskill Water Discovery Center.

Gillingham will present “A Half-Mile from the Road,” a brief history of Wild Roots Farm and how it went from a cabin in the woods to a 150-member community-supported agriculture program. Gillingham will discuss how the CSA model builds community, as well as the philosophical, political and practical choices his family dealt with to build a business, contend with major flooding, have two children and build an ecologically appropriate log home in seven years. In addition, the group will discuss animals as part of the farmstead, creating a CSA, looking toward the future crops for tomorrow and more.

Gillingham grew up on the ridge above Livingston Manor. He started working on a dairy farm next door as a “waste management specialist” for 90 cents an hour when he was 12, and worked there until going to college. After college he started working for the National Audubon Society Expedition Institute and became an acting director in the field program. Gillingham taught at AEI with the belief that the best way to learn about the environment is to experience it directly. He led full-semester programs in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, Newfoundland, Florida, southern Appalachia, the desert Southwest, the Pacific Northwest and Gulf Coast. During this time, Gillingham said he gained a passion for and recognized the need for healthy local food. He and his wife, Amy, have been growing organic vegetables and herbs commercially since 1997.

Gillingham served on the board of the Northeast Organic Farming Association of New York and the Sullivan County Farm Bureau. Over the last year, he and a coalition of partners launched the Catskill Mountain Keeper, a nonprofit advocacy organization whose mission is to protect the ecological integrity of the Catskill Mountain range and the quality of life of all those who live there.

The Catskill Center is a nonprofit, membership organization working to foster healthy ecosystems and vibrant communities in the Catskills.

For more information, visit or call (845) 586-2611